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Citing Sources: Chicago: Author-Date

Chicago Manual of Style (Documentation II: Author-Date), 17th Edition

The Chicago Author-Date style is used by students and scholars in the physical and social sciences. 

The Chicago Manual of Style

ASA style guide

ASA Style Guide Cover








 American Sociological Association style guide

Information desk: HM 569.A54 2010

(see the library catalog)

More guides to Chicago: Author-Date and ASPA styles

How to cite sources in Chicago: Author-Date

Chicago Author-Date requires that you document your sources with parenthetical references in the text of your paper. Full bibliographic details should also be included in a list of references at the end of the paper.

Special note: The APSA (American Political Science Association) Style is based on the Chicago Author-Date style.

In text - parenthetical

The general format for in-text references is author's last name and date, followed by the specific page number. Punctuation follows the in-text citation. Editors and translators are treated as authors in in-text references.

Single author Note
(Rigger 1999, 55-56) Include the author's last name, publication date, and the page number referenced. In Chicago Author-Date, you put a "," between the date and page numbers referenced.
2 or 3 authors
(Hess and Ross 1993, 34)
(Foley, Smith, and Ross 2000, 44)
4+ authors Note

(Martin et al. 2000, 44)

Use only the first author and "et al.", but list all authors in the bibliography.

Editor Note
(Ortmayer 1975, 45) If you're citing an editor, you do not need to put the "ed." in the text citation. Treat the editor just as you would an author in text. You will provide the full details in the list of references.
Corporate author  
(United Nations 2010, 16)
Anonymous/no known author Note
(Anonymous Work 1641, 151) Books: Include a shortened form of the title in italics, followed by the page reference.
("Genre and Gender" 1981, 12) Articles: Include a shortened form of the article title in quotes, followed by the page reference.
Multiple sources, same author Note
(Weinstein 2001a, 123)
(Weinstein 2001b, 324)
Differentiate works by the same author in the same year by adding 'a', 'b', 'c', etc. Use 'a' for the first entry in the References list, 'b' for the second, etc.
Multiple text references Note
(Johnston 2010, 23; Smith 2009, 254) Use a ";" to separate more than one source in a parenthetical reference. List the authors alphabetically.
Indirect references Note
(quoted in Nelson 2010, 45) It is best practice to consult the original source for references, but use this formatting for situations when you cannot track down original source.

References: books

Core elements: Author/s, date, Title of Source (in italics), publication information (publisher name, location), and URL or doi (digital object identifier), if online.

Book with a single author
Rigger, Shelley. 1999. Politics in Taiwan: Voting for Democracy. London: 
Ortmayer, Louis L. 1975. Conflict, Compromise, and Conciliation: West German-
Polish Normalization, 1966-1976. Denver, CO: University of Denver, Graduate School of International Studies.
Book with 2+ authors
Appleyard, Dennis R., Alfred J. Field, and Steven L. Cobb. 2008. International 
Economics. Boston: McGraw-Hill Irwin.
Hess, Peter N., and Clark G. Ross. 1993. Principles of Economics: An Analytical 
Approach. Minneapolis: West.
Edited book
Plummer, Marjorie Elizabeth, Robin Barnes, and H. C. Erik Midelfort, eds. 
2009. Ideas and Cultural Margins in Early Modern Germany: Essays in Honor of H.C. Erik Midelfort. Farnham, England: Ashgate. doi:123/23456789.0101.
Crandall, Russell, Guadalupe Paz, and Riordan Roett, eds. 2005. Mexico's 
Democracy at Work: Political and Economic Dynamics. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Book chapter
Martin, David. 2007. "The Preanalytic Visions of Environmental Economics in 
Investigating Biodiversity Preservation." In Essays in Ecocriticism, edited by Nirmal Selvamony, Nirmaldassan, and Rayson K. Alex, 67-81. New Delhi: Sarup & Sons.
Schousen, Matthew M., David T. Canon, and Patrick J. Sellers. 1998. 
"Representation and Ambition in the New African-American Congressional Districts: The Supply-Side Effects." In Race and Redistricting in the 1990s, edited by Bernard Grofman, 39-50. New York: Agathon Press.

References: articles

Core elements: Author/s, date, "Article Title", Source/Journal Title (in italics), Volume, Issue, and URL or doi (digital object identifier), if online.

Journal article with a single author
Perry, David L. 2010. "Some Unsettling Ethical Reflections on 
Interrogation." International Journal of Intelligence Ethics 1 (1): 47-75. doi:1234567-89029.
Shaw, Brian J. 2005. "Rawls, Kant's Doctrine of Right, and Global Distributive 
Justice." Journal of Politics 67: 220-249.
Journal article with 2+ authors
Foley, Mark, and Fred Smith. 2007. "Consumer Discrimination in Professional 
Sports: New Evidence from Major League Baseball." Applied Economics Letters 14 (13): 951-955. doi:10.1080/13504850600705935.
Foley, Mark, and Will Pyle. 2003. "Formal Socialist Economies and the 
Undergraduate Curriculum." Comparative Economic Studies 45 (4): 537-553.
Newspaper article
Flanagan, Brenda. 2010. "How Haiti Survives." Los Angeles Sentinel. June 17. 
Hodge, Cannon. 2004. "Finally, He is a Dog: a Day in the Life of Fred."
Davidsonian [Davidson, NC], April 7.
Magazine article
Kolbert, Elizabeth. 2011. "Age of Man." National Geographic, March 2.
Same as above without the access date and URL.
Article in a reference source
Martin, David. 2007. "Balance of Trade." In International Encyclopedia of the Social 
Sciences, edited by William Darity. 2nd ed. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA. doi:123456789/19.
Menkhaus, Kenneth J. 1992. "Siyad Barre." In Political Leaders of Contemporary 
Africa South of the Sahara: A Biographical Dictionary, edited by Harvey Glickman, 28-33. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Chapter in book
Martin, David. 2007. "The Preanalytic Visions of Environmental Economics in 
Investigating Biodiversity Preservation." In Essays in Ecocriticism, edited by Nirmal Selvamony, Nirmaldassan, and Rayson K. Alex, 67-81. New Delhi: Sarup & Sons. doi:123/jir02910301/0345.
Schousen, Matthew M., David T. Canon, and Patrick J. Sellers. 1998.
"Representation and Ambition in the New African-American Congressional Districts: The Supply-Side Effects." In Race and Redistricting in the 1990s, edited by Bernard Grofman, 39-50. New York: Agathon Press.
Book review
Ahrensdorf, Peter. 1996. Review of Plato's Statesman: The Web of Politics, by 
Stanley Rosen. Journal of Politics 58: 1241-43.
Roberts, Susan L. 1985. Review of Both Ends of the Avenue: The Presidency, the 
Executive Branch, and Congress in the 1980s, by Anthony King. Journal of Politics 47: 1008-1010.

References: online sources

Note: The Chicago Manual of Style requires that you include a doi (digital object identifier) or URL for sources that you find online. If neither a doi or URL is available, list the database where you found the source (ex. LexisNexis). Access dates are no longer required for online sources.

University of Chicago Press. 2010. "Chicago Manual of Style." 
Accessed February 10.
Journal article online
Online, with doi
Foley, Mark, and Fred Smith. 2007. "Consumer Discrimination in 
Professional Sports: New Evidence from Major League Baseball." Applied Economics Letters 14 (13): 951-955. doi:10.1080/13504850600705935.
Online, with URL
Crandall, Russell. 2001. Explicit Narcotization: U.S. Policy Toward Columbia 
During the Samper Administration. Latin American Politics and Society 43 (3): 95-120.
Online, no doi or URL
Mahony, William K. 1988. "The Artist as Yogi, the Yogi as Artist." Parabola 13,
(March 1, 1988): 68-79. ATLA Religion Database, EBSCOhost (accessed May 1, 2011).
Pegelow, Thomas. 2009. The Language of Nazi Genocide: Linguistic 
Violence and the Struggle of Germans of Jewish Ancestry. New York: Cambridge University Press. 
Note: For ebooks, include a doi or URL. Access dates are not required.
Magazine - News article online
Online, news
Menkhaus, Ken, and Karin von Hippel. 2008. "Somalia, Republic of 
Blowback."New York Times, September 4.
Online, magazine
Crandall, Russell. 2011. "The Post-American Hemisphere: Power and 
Politics in an Autonomous Latin America." Foreign Affairs, May/June.

References: media (video, audio, & image)

Note: For additional examples of audio-visual materials, refer to 15.53 of The Chicago Manual of Style.

Yates, David, Steven Kloves, David Heyman, David Barron, J.K. Rowling, Lionel 
Wigram, et al. 2010. Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part 1. Widescreen Edition. Warner Brothers, DVD. 
Audio recording
Bieber, Justin, and Sean Kingston. 2010. "Eenie Meenie." On My World 2.0, Island, compact disc. 
Art - image
Gormley, Antony. 2005. You (sculpture). Photograph in JPEG format from 
Davidson College, Davidson, NC.


References: other (primary resources & government documents)

Government documents are commonly used in political science and economics research. Refer to the Chicago and APSA Manual (available at the information desk) for additional examples.

Menkhaus, Ken. 2007. "What's Behind the U.S. Strike in Somalia." By Steve 
Inskeep. NPR Morning Edition, January 9.
Lincoln, Abraham. 1863. Letter to Joseph Hooker. Alfred Whital Stern Collection of 
Lincolniana, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.
Government document
U.S. Congress. Senate. 2009. Human-Animal Hybrid Prohibition Act of 
2009.111th Cong., 1st sess., S. Rept. 1435.
Note: If retrieved online, include the URL.
Conference presentation
Adelman, Rachel. 2009. " 'Such Stuff as Dreams Are Made On': God's Footstool in 
the Aramaic Targumim and Midrashic Tradition." Paper presented at the annual meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, New Orleans, Louisiana, November 21-24.

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