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Citing Sources: MLA 7th Edition

Modern Language Association (MLA), 7th Edition.

The MLA style is used by students and scholars in the humanities.

More guides to MLA style

MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers

Based on the MLA Style Manual

MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing

How to cite sources in MLA

MLA requires that you document your sources by including parenthetical references in the text and a comprehensive list of Works Cited at the end of the paper (in hanging indent style). 

In text - parenthetical

Core elements: The general format for in-text references is to include the author's last name and the page number for the specific quote or reference. Place the parenthetical reference at the end of the sentence (Author 123). Punctuation should follow the parenthetical citation. If you mention the author's name in the text, you do not need to repeat the author's name in parentheses. Example: Martin Heidegger's explanation of anxiety...(34). See Chapter 6 of the MLA Manual for additional information.

Single author Note
(Vásquez 201) Include the author's last name and the page number referenced. In MLA, you do not include punctuation between author and page number.
2-3 authors
(Munger and Campbell 101)
(Fox, Churchill, and Ingram 44)
4+ authors Note
(Ingram et al. 22)
(Ingram, Marshall, Philippon, and Sweeting 22)
Use "et al." or list all of the authors; match how the authors are listed in the works cited. 
Authors with same last name Note
(R. Ingram 151)
(A. Ingram 345)
If you are citing authors with the same last name, add the authors' first initials in the in text citation.
Organization as author  
(United Nations 16)
Anonymous/no known author Note
(Anonymous Work 151) Books: Include a shortened form of the title in italics, followed by the page reference.
("Genre and Gender" 123) Articles: Include a shortened form of the article title in quotes, followed by the page reference.
Multiple sources, same author Note
(Flanagan, Allah in the Islands 151) Books: Include a shortened form of the title in italics, followed by the page reference.
(Flanagan, "Soul Hands Clap" 95) Articles: Include a shortened form of the title in quotes, followed by the page reference.
Multiple sources, same sentence Note
(Flanagan 95; Fackler 222) Separate works using a ";".
Indirect references Note
(qtd. in Nelson 234) It is best practice to consult the original source for references, but use this formatting for situations when you cannot track down an original source.

Works cited: books

Core elements: Author/s, Book Title (in italics), Publication Info (Publisher, Location & Date), Medium (Print, Web, etc.), and Access Date (if applicable). For ebooks that you find in databases, include the name of the database (ex. ebrary).

Book with a single author
Online
Ingram, Annie Merrill. Coming into Contact: Explorations in Ecocritical Theory 
and Practice. Athens, GA: U of Georgia P, 2007. NetLibrary. Web. 23 Feb. 2011.
Print
Gibson, Gail. The Theater of Devotion: East Anglian Drama and Society in 
the Late Middle Ages. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1989. Print.
Book with 2-3 authors
Online
Munger, David, and Shireen Campbell. What Every Student Should Know About 
Researching Online. New York: Pearson Longman, 2007. ebrary. Web. 23 Feb. 2011.
Print
McKeever, Sean D., and Michael R. Ridge. Principled Ethics: Generalism as a 
Regulative Ideal. Oxford: Clarendon, 2006. Print.
Book with 4+ authors
Print
Ingram, Annie M., Ian Marshall, Daniel J. Philippon, and Adam W. Sweeting, 
eds. Coming into Contact: Explorations in Ecocritical Theory and Practice. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2007. Print.
or
Ingram, Annie M., et al., eds. Coming into Contact: Explorations in Ecocritical 
Theory and Practice. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2007. Print.
Edited book
Online
Kietrys, Kyra A., and Montserrat Linares, eds. Women in the Spanish Novel 
Today: Essays on the Reflection of Self in the Works of Three Generations. Jefferson: McFarland, 2009. Ebrary. Web. 15 Jan. 2010.
Print
Kuzmanovich, Zoran, and Galya Diment, eds. Approaches to Teaching 
Nabokov's Lolita. New York: MLA, 2008. Print.
Chapter in book
Online
Maiz-Peña, Magdalena, and Wendy G. Dunn. "Mapping the Jewish Female Voice 
in Contemporary Mexican Narrative." Passion, Memory, and Identity: Twentieth-Century Latin American Jewish Women Writers. Ed. Marjorie Agosín. Albuquerque: U of New Mexico P, 1999. 17-33. NetLibrary. Web. 16 Feb. 2011.
Print
Ingram, Randall. "Manuscript Transmission." Milton in Context. Ed. Stephen B. 
Dobranski. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2010. 372-381. Print.

References cited: articles

Core elements: 1st line: Author/s; 2nd line: Date of Publication, Title of Article (no quotation marks), Source Title (not italicized), Volume, Issue number (in parentheses), Page numbers, doi or URL (if applicable).

Journal article with a single author
Online
Fairley, Nancy
2003 Dreaming Ancestors in Eastern Carolina. Journal of Black Studies 33(5):545-61. doi: 10.1177/0021934703033005001.
Print
Same as above without doi or URL
Journal article with 2 authors
Online
Cho, Helen, Sam D. Stout, and Thomas A. Bishop.
2006 Cortical Bone Remodeling Rates in a Sample of African American and European American Descent Groups from the American Midwest: Comparisons of Age and Sex in Ribs. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 130(2):214-226. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.20312.
Print
Same as above without doi or URL
Newspaper article
Online
Lucero, Lisa J.
2011 An Ancient Watery Underworld. New York Times, May 25: B2. http://scientistatwork.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/05/25/an-ancient-watery-underworld/.
Print
Editorial
2008 Repatriation of Ancestral Remains. Los Angeles Times, March 4: A16.
Magazine article
Gorney, Cynthia
2011 Too Young to Wed: The Secret World of Child Brides. National Geographic 219(6): 78-99. http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2011/06/child-brides/gorney-text/2.
Print
Same as above without doi or URL
Article in a reference source
Online
Wynn, Thomas
1994 Tools and Tool Behavior. In Encyclopedia of Anthropology: Humanity, Culture, and Social Life. Tim Ingold, ed. Pp. 133-161. London: Routledge. http://site.ebrary.com/1234567678.
Print
Same as above without doi or URL
Book review
Hein, Hilde
2007 Review of Riches, Rivals and Radicals: 100 Years of Museums in America. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 65(3):335-338. doi: 0101/jkso/1234567.
Print
Same as above without doi or URL
Article or chapter in book
Online
Ringle, William M.
2009 "In Recalling Things Past, I Strengthen My Heart" : Accommodating the Past in Early Colonial Yucatán. In Maya Worldviews at Conquest. Leslie G. Cecil and Timothy W. Pugh, eds. Pp. 39-59. Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado. http://site.ebrary.com/id/10356774.
Print
Same as above without doi or URL

Works cited: online sources

Core elements: In the 7th edition of the MLA manual, URLs are no longer required. If you decide to include one, put the URL in angle brackets followed by punctuation. You will also use the format designation 'Web' for online sources, as well as the date of access. If you are citing an article that you found in a database, you should also include the title of the database in italics.

Webpage
Online (n.d.=no date)
Davidson College. Digital Dickinson. Davidson College English Department, 
n.d. Web. 6 June 2011.
Journal article online
Online
Goldstein, Irwin. "Solipsism and the Solitary Language User." Philosophical 
Papers 36.1 (2007): 35-47. JSTOR. Web. 12 Mar. 2010.
Online (no pages)
Miller, Paul. "Writing on the Soul: Technology, Writing, and the Legacy of 
Plato." Composition Forum 18 (2008): n. pag. Web. 6 June 2011.
eBook
Online
McKeever, Sean D., and Michael R. Ridge. Principled Ethics: Generalism As a 
Regulative Ideal. Oxford: Clarendon, 2006. ebrary. Web. 12 Feb. 2011.
Magazine – news article
Online
Lewis, Cynthia. "Being District Attorney: Peter Gilchrist Looks Back." Charlotte 
Magazine Dec. 2010: n. pag. Web. 18 June 2011.
Podcast
Online
Collins, Mike. "Language in an Electronic Age with Cynthia Lewis, Pam Kelley,
and Ben Zimmer." Podcast. WFAE 90.7fm Charlotte Talks. 4 May 2009. Web. 5 May 2011.

Works cited: media (video, audio, & image)

Examples for a few basic media sources are listed below. For additional examples of citing media sources, refer to section 5.7 of the MLA Style Manual.

Film
DVD
Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part 1. Dir. David Yates. Perf. Daniel 
Radcliffe, Emma Watson, and Rupert Grint. Warner Brothers, 2010. DVD.
Podcast
Online
Collins, Mike. "Language in an Electronic Age with Cynthia Lewis, Pam Kelley, 
and Ben Zimmer." Podcast. WFAE 90.7fm Charlotte Talks. 4 May 2009. Web. 5 May 2011.
Audio recording
CD
Bieber, Justin, and Sean Kingston. "Eenie Meenie." My World 2.0. Island, 2010. CD.
Art – Image 
On site
Gormley, Antony. You. 2005. Cast iron. Davidson College, Davidson, NC.
Image, online
Gormley, Antony. You. 2005. Cast iron. Davidson College, Davidson, NC. 
Davidson College Website. Web. 22 May 2010.

Works cited: primary sources & other sources

Examples for a few basic sources are listed below. For additional examples of primary sources, refer to section 5.7 of the MLA Style Manual.

Interview
Online
Parker, Alan Michael. Interview by Matt Bell. The Collagist: Online 
Literature from Dzanc Books. Westland, MI: Dzanc Books, 2010. Web. 30 Mar. 2010.
Government document
Print
United States. Cong. House. Committee on the Judiciary. Hearing on the 
Immigration Raids: Pottsville and Beyond. 110th Cong., 2nd sess. Washington: GPO, 2008. Print.
Letter
Online (MS=by hand)
Lincoln, Abraham. Letter to Joseph Hooker. 26 Jan. 1863. MS. Lincoln's 
Letters. Alfred Whital Stern Collection of Lincolniana. Library of 
Congress, Washington, DC. Web. 26 May 2011. 
Print (MS=by hand)
Rozear, Hannah. Letter to Lindsay Lohan. 17 May 2011. MS.
Print (TS=typescript)
Savage, Randy. Letter to Mr. Perfect. 17 Jan. 2011. TS.
Conference presentation
Peña, Luis H. "Narrativas Cinematograficas en Dispersion: Espacios, 
Cuerpos y Violencia Urbana." Sixth Biennial Florida International University Conference on Spanish and Spanish American Cultural Studies. Florida International University. Miami, FL. 6 Mar. 2008. Conference Presentation.

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