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Citing Sources: Chicago: Notes & Bibliography

Chicago Manual of Style (Documentation I: Notes & Bibliography)

The Chicago Notes & Bibliography style is used by students and scholars in the humanities.

A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers

A pocket guide to writing in history

A style and usage guide to writing about music

More guides to Chicago: Notes & Bibliography and Turabian styles

How to cite sources in Chicago: Notes & Bibliography

Chicago Notes & Bibliography requires that you document your sources by including footnotes or endnotes. Additionally, you will include a bibliography with full details at the end of your paper. 

Special note: The Turabian style is based on The Chicago Manual of Style, but it is a slightly modified style geared for student writers.

Books

Core elements: Author/s, Book Title (in italics), Publication Location, Publisher, Publication Date, doi or URL (if online). For online sources, no date of access is required. The first time you reference a source, use a full note. In subsequent notes, use the Short Note style. "Ibid." (see examples below) may be used in notes, when you have successive references to the same work. Refer to the manual for more details on using Ibid.

Book with a single author
NOTE:
Online
3 John Wertheimer, Law and Society in the South: A History of North Carolina Court Cases (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2009), 123, http://site.ebrary.com/id/10303359.
SHORT NOTE:
Online
4 Wertheimer, Law and Society, 123.
5 Ibid., 111.
BIBLIOGRAPHY:
Online
Wertheimer, John. Law and Society in the South: A History of North Carolina 
Court Cases. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2009. http://site.ebrary.com/id/10303359.
NOTE:
Print
34 Larry L. Ligo, Manet, Baudelaire and Photography, (Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 2006), 1:124.
SHORT NOTE:
Print
35 Ligo, Manet, Baudelaire, and Photography, 1:156.
BIBLIOGRAPHY:
Print
Ligo, Larry L. Manet, Baudelaire and Photography. Vol. 1. Lewiston, NY: Edwin 
Mellen Press, 2006.
Book with 2-3 authors
NOTE:
Online
12 Montague Kern, Patricia W. Levering, and Ralph Levering, The Kennedy Crises: The Press, the Presidency, and Foreign Policy (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1983), 34. http://www.netlibrary.com/12345.
SHORT NOTE:
Online
13 Kern, Levering, and Levering, The Kennedy Crises, 35. 
14 Ibid., 37.
BIBLIOGRAPHY:
Online
Kern, Montague, Patricia W. Levering, and Ralph B. Levering. The Kennedy 
Crises: The Press, the Presidency, and Foreign Policy. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1983. http://www.netlibrary.com/12345.
NOTE:
Print
Arthur G. Holder and William Trent Foley, Bede: A Biblical Miscellany (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1999), 12.
SHORT NOTE:
Print
Holder and Foley, Bede: A Biblical Miscellany, 14.
BIBLIOGRAPHY:
Print
Holder, Arthur G., and William Trent Foley. Bede: A Biblical 
Miscellany. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1999.
Edited book
NOTE:
Online
3 Robin B. Barnes et al., eds., Books Have Their Own Destiny: Essays in Honor of Robert V. Schnucker (Kirksville, MO: Thomas Jefferson Press, 1998), 34. http://site.ebrary.com/id/232323.
SHORT NOTE:
Online
4 Barnes et al., Books Have Their Own Destiny, 35.
5 Ibid., 38.
BIBLIOGRAPHY:
Online
Barnes, Robin B., Robert Kolb, Paula L. Presley, and Robert V. Schnucker, 
eds. Books Have Their Own Destiny: Essays in Honor of Robert V. Schnucker. Kirksville, MO: Thomas Jefferson University Press, 1998. http://site.ebrary.com/id/232323.
NOTE:
Print
34 Paul D. Escott, et al., eds., Major Problems in the History of the American South: Documents and Essays (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1999), 123.
SHORT NOTE:
Print
35 Escott et al., Major Problems, 125.
BIBLIOGRAPHY:
Print
Escott, Paul D., David Goldfield, Sally G. McMillen, Elizabeth Hayes Turner, 
and Thomas Paterson, eds. Major Problems in the History of the American South: Documents and Essays. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1999.
Note: For works with 4 to 10 authors/editors, list all in the bibliography. In the note, use "et al." For works with more than 10 authors/editors, list the first 7 in the bibliography, followed by "et al." 
Chapter in book
NOTE:
Online
Daniel Aldridge, "Black Powerlessness in a Liberal Era: The NAACP, Anticolonialism, and the United Nations Organization," in Imperialism on Trial: International Oversight of Colonial Rule in Historical Perspective, eds., R.M. Douglas, Michael D. Callahan, and Elizabeth Bishop (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2006), 86. http://catalog.hathitrust.org/api/volumes/oclc/69903811.html.
SHORT NOTE:
Online
Aldridge"Black Powerlessness," 125. 
7 Ibid., 89.
BIBLIOGRAPHY:
Online
Aldridge, Daniel. "Black Powerlessness in a Liberal Era: The NAACP, 
Anticolonialism, and the United Nations Organization." In Imperialism on Trial: International Oversight of Colonial Rule in Historical Perspective, edited by R.M. Douglas, Michael D. Callahan, and Elizabeth Bishop, 85-111. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2006. http://catalog.hathitrust.org/api/volumes/oclc/69903811.html.
NOTE:
Print
2 Michael J. Guasco, "Settling with Slavery: Human Bondage in the Early Anglo-Atlantic World," in Envisioning an English Empire: Jamestown and the Making of the North Atlantic World, eds. Robert Applebaum and John Sweet Wood (Philadelphia: University of Philadelphia Press, 2005), 236.
SHORT NOTE:
Print
3 Guasco"Settling with Slavery," 238.
BIBLIOGRAPHY:
Print
Guasco, Michael J. "Settling with Slavery: Human Bondage in the Early
Anglo-Atlantic World." In Envisioning an English Empire: Jamestown and the Making of the North Atlantic World, edited by Robert Applebaum and John Sweet Wood, 236-53. Philadelphia: University of Philadelphia Press, 2005.

Articles

Core elements: Author/s, "Title of Article", Source Title, Volume, and/or Issue, Date of Publication, and pages. When citing journal articles you find online, include a doi (digital object identifier). If no doi is present, include a URL. Date of access is not required in Chicago.

Journal article with a single author
NOTE:
Online
4 Gregory Snyder, "Pictures in Dialogue: A Viewer-Centered Approach to the Hypogeum on Via Dino Compagni," Journal of Early Christian Studies 13 (2005): 360, doi: 10.1353/earl.2005.0047.
SHORT NOTE:
Online
Snyder"Pictures in Dialogue," 375.
6 Ibid., 381-382.
BIBLIOGRAPHY:
Online
Snyder, Gregory. "Pictures in Dialogue: A Viewer-Centered Approach to the 
Hypogeum on Via Dino Compagni." Journal of Early Christian Studies 13 (2005): 349-86. doi:10.1353/earl.2005.0047.
NOTE:
Print
12 Karl A. Plank, "By the Water of Death Camp: An Intertextual Reading of Psalm 137," Literature and Theology 22 (2008): 185.
SHORT NOTE:
Print
13 Plank"By the Water," 192.
BIBLIOGRAPHY:
Print
Plank, Karl A. "By the Water of Death Camp: An Intertextual Reading of Psalm 
137." Literature and Theology 22 (2008): 180-94.
Journal article with 2-3 authors
NOTE:
Online
11.James G. Keenan and Michael Toumazou, "Ptolemaic Account (P. Teb. 131),"Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 41 (1981): 265, http://www.jstor.org/stable/20186029.
SHORT NOTE:
Online
12 Keenan and Toumazou"Ptolemaic Account," 268.
BIBLIOGRAPHY:
Online
Keenan, James G., and Michael Toumazou. "Ptolemaic Account (P. Teb. 
131)."Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 41 (1981): 263-69. http://www.jstor.org/stable/20186029.
Print
Same as above without the doi or URL.
Newspaper article
NOTE:
Online
Darren Everson, "Revenge of the Curry Brothers," Wall Street Journal, March 12, 2009, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB123681216980401339.html.
SHORT NOTE:
Online
Everson"Revenge of the Curry Brothers."
BIBLIOGRAPHY:
Online
Everson, Darren. "The Revenge of the Curry Brothers." Wall Street Journal, March 
12, 2009. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB123681216980401339.html.
NOTE:
Print
Cannon Hodge, "Finally, He is a Dog: A Day in the Life of Fred," Davidsonian (Davidson, NC), April 7, 2004.
SHORT NOTE:
Print
Hodge"Finally, He is a Dog," 7.
BIBLIOGRAPHY:
Print
Hodge, Cannon. "Finally, He is a Dog: A Day in the Life of 
Fred." Davidsonian (Davidson, NC), April 7, 2004, 7.
Magazine article
NOTE:
Online
Sally McMillen, "It's So Easy to Forget the Pioneers in Women's Rights,"History News Network (H-Net), November 16, 2009, http://hnn.us/articles/119099.html.
SHORT NOTE:
Online
McMillen"It's So Easy."
BIBLIOGRAPHY:
Online
McMillen, Sally. "It's So Easy to Forget the Pioneers in Women's Rights." History 
News Network (H-Net). November 16, 2009.  http://hnn.us/articles/119099.html.
NOTE:
Print
Elizabeth Kolbert, “Enter the Anthropocene Age of Man,” National Geographic, March 2011, 61.
SHORT NOTE:
Print
Kolbert, “Enter the Anthropocene,” 63. 
BIBLIOGRAPHY:
Print
Kolbert, Elizabeth. “Enter the Anthropocene Age of Man.” National Geographic,

March 2011.

Article in a reference source
NOTE:
Online
Neil Lerner, "Hoop Dreams," in Encyclopedia of the Documentary Film, ed. Ian Aitken (New York: Routledge, 2006), http://catalog.hathitrust.org/api/volumes/oclc/59002598.html.
SHORT NOTE:
Online
Lerner"Hoop Dreams."
BIBLIOGRAPHY:
Online
Lerner, Neil. "Hoop Dreams." In Encyclopedia of the Documentary Film, edited by 
Ian Aitken. New York: Routledge, 2006. http://catalog.hathitrust.org/api/volumes/oclc/59002598.html.
NOTE:
Print
Jane Mangan,"Potosí and the Slave Trade," in Encyclopedia of the Middle Passage, eds. Toyin Falola and Amanda Warnock (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2007): 260.
SHORT NOTE:
Print
Mangan"Potosí and the Slave Trade," 260.
BIBLIOGRAPHY:
Print
Mangan, Jane. "Potosí and the Slave Trade." In Encyclopedia of the Middle 
Passage, edited by Toyin Falola and Amanda Warnock, 260-61. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2007.
Book review
NOTE:
Online
13 Peter Krentz, review of The Character of Xenophon's Hellenica, by Vivienne Gray, Classical World 83, no. 6 (1990): 531, http://www.jstor.org/stable/4350689.
SHORT NOTE:
Online
14 Krentzreview of The Character of Xenophon's Hellenica, 531.
BIBLIOGRAPHY:
Online
Krentz, Peter. Review of The Character of Xenophon's Hellenica, by Vivienne 
Gray. Classical World 83, no. 6 (1990): 531-32. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4350689.
NOTE:
Print
Nina Serebrennikov, Review of Peasant Scenes and Landscapes: The Rise of Pictorial Genres in the Antwerp Art Market, by Larry Silver, Renaissance Quarterly 59, no. 4 (2006): 1246.
SHORT NOTE:
Print
Serebrennikovreview of Peasant Scenes, 1246.
BIBLIOGRAPHY:
Print
Serebrennikov, Nina. Review of Peasant Scenes and Landscapes: The Rise of 
Pictorial Genres in the Antwerp Art Market, by Larry Silver. Renaissance Quarterly 59, no. 4 (2006): 1245-1247.

Online sources

Core elements: When possible, include a doi (digital object identifier) for sources you find online. If no doi is present, include a stable URL. If no doi or URL is available, include the name of the database where you retrieved the source. Access dates are no longer required in Chicago. For websites that are subject to change, you may include an access date.

Webpage
NOTE:
"Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide," University of Chicago Press, accessed June 13, 2011, http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html.
BIBLIOGRAPHY:
University of Chicago Press. "Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide." Chicago Manual of 
Style Online. Accessed June 13, 2011. http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html.
Journal article online
NOTE:
William K. Mahony, "Artist as Yogi, the Yogi as Artist," Parabola 13 (1988): 70, doi:98765432/12345.
SHORT NOTE:
Mahony"Artist as Yogi," 78.
BIBLIOGRAPHY:
Mahony, William K. "The Artist as Yogi, the Yogi as Artist." Parabola 13 (1988): 68-79. 
doi:98765432/12345.
eBook
NOTE:
Jonathan Berkey, Formation of Islam: Religion and Society in the Near East, 600-1800, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003): 283, http://www.ebrary.com/12345.
SHORT NOTE:
Berkey, Formation of Islam, 234-235.
BIBLIOGRAPHY:
Berkey, Jonathan. The Formation of Islam: Religion and Society in the Near East, 600
-1800. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003. http://www.ebrary.com/12345.
Magazine article online
NOTE:
12 Sally McMillen, "It's So Easy to Forget the Pioneers in Women's Rights," History News Network (H-Net), November 16, 2009, http://hnn.us/articles/119099.html.
BIBLIOGRAPHY:
McMillen, Sally. "It's So Easy to Forget the Pioneers in Women's Rights." History News 
Network (H-Net). November 16, 2009. http://hnn.us/articles/119099.html.

Media (video, audio, & image)

Note: For additional examples of audio-visual materials, refer to 15.23 of the Chicago Manual of Style.

Special Note: Audio, video, and multimedia recordings are typically listed in a Discography seperate from the Bibliography. 

Film
NOTE:
DVD
2 David Yates, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part 1, widescreen ed. (Burbank, CA: Warner Brothers, 2011), DVD.
DISCOGRAPHY:
DVD
Yates, David. Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part 1, widescreen 
ed. Burbank, CA: Warner Brothers, 2011. DVD. 
Podcast
NOTE:
Online
Russell Crandall, "U.S. Aid Aimed at Halting Colombian Drug Exports," podcast, NPR News: Weekend Edition Sunday, Liane Hansen (host), March 11, 2007, http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=7829851.
BIBLIOOGRAPHY:
Online
Crandall, Russell. "U.S. Aid Aimed at Halting Colombian Drug Exports." 
Podcast. NPR News: Weekend Edition Sunday. Liane Hansen (host). March 11, 2007. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=7829851.
Audio recording
NOTE:
CD
Justin Bieber and Sean Kingston, "Eenie Meenie," My World 2.0, Island, 2010, compact disc.
DISCOGRAPHY:
CD
Bieber, Justin, and Sean Kingston. "Eenie Meenie." My World 2.0. Island, 2010, 
compact disc. 
Image
NOTE:
Online
Antony Gormley, You, 2005, sculpture, Davidson College, Davidson, NC. http://www.davidsoncollegeartgalleries.org/antony-gormley/.
BIBLIOGRAPHY:
Online
Gormley, Antony. You. Sculpture. 2005. Davidson College, 
Davidson, NC. http://www.davidsoncollegeartgalleries.org/antony-gormley/.

 

Other (primary sources & government documents)

Primary sources are commonly used in the study of history. Refer to the Chicago Manual for additional examples. History majors, refer to Rampolla's Pocket Guide to Writing in History (6th ed.).

Interviews
NOTE:
12 Ron Rash, "The Natural World is the Most Universal of Languages," interview by Thomas Bjerre, Appalachian Journal 34, no. 2 (Winter 2007), 218.
BIBLIOGRAPHY:
Rash, Ron. "The Natural World is the Most Universal of Languages." Interview by 
Thomas Bjerre. Appalachian Journal 34, no. 2 (Winter 2007): 216-227.
Letter
NOTE: 
Online
33 Abraham Lincoln to Joseph Hooker, January 26, 1863, Alfred Whital Stern Collection of Lincolniana, Library of Congress, Washington, DC, http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/stern-lincoln/letters.html.
BIBLIOGRAPHY:
Online
Lincoln, Abraham. Letter to Joseph Hooker. January 26, 1863. Alfred Whital 
Stern Collection of Lincolniana, Library of Congress, Washington, DC. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/stern-lincoln/letters.html.
Government Document
NOTE: 
Print
12 U.S. Congress. Senate, Human-Animal Hybrid Prohibition Act of 2009, 111th Cong., 1st sess., S. Rept. 1435, July 9, 2009, 12.
Online
If retrieved online, include the URL.
BIBLIOGRAPHY:
Print
U.S. Congress. Senate. Human-Animal Hybrid Prohibition Act of 2009. 111th 
Cong., 1st sess., S. Rept. 1435, July 9, 2009.

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