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Hispanic Studies

APA Style

The APA style is often used by students and scholars in the social sciences, especially in the fields of psychology and sociology.

Formatting In-Text Citations

APA features in-text citation, which typically includes the author's last name and date (Lipson 2018).

Common Exceptions 

  • When quoting directly with APA, include a specific page number 
    • "microaggressions are brief, everyday exchanges that send denigrating messages to people of color because they belong to a racial minority group" (Sue, et. al 2007, p. 273)
  • If you cite an author in a sentence, then you should exclude the author from the in-text citation.
    • Sue et. al describes various types of microaggressions, such as microasault (2007).

Quick Citation Rules

Full Style Guide

MLA Style Guide

The MLA style utilizes in text citations and MLA and has a standard template for developing bibliography references.

Formatting In-Text Citations

The general format for in-text references is to include the author's last name and the page number for the specific quote or reference. Place the parenthetical reference at the end of the sentence (Author 123).

Common Exceptions

  • If you mention the author's name in the sentence preceding a citation, leave the author's name out of the citation.
    • e.g. Martin Heidegger's explanation of anxiety...(34)
  • No author: Instead of author name, us a shortened version of the title in italics or in quotes for an article.

Quick Citation Rules

Full Citation Guide

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chicago style has two versions:

  • Notes & Bibliography, which has footnotes instead of in-text citations
  • Author & Date, which uses in-text citations.

Turabian style is based off of Chicago style, but has simpler rules for structuring citations.

Formatting Notes (Chicago and Turabian Notes & Bibliography)

A note uses a footnote to indicate a citation. For example: a behavioral antiracist is "one who is making racial group behavior fictional and individual behavior real."1


1. Ibram X. Kendi, How to Be an Antiracist (One world, 2019), 92.

Formatting In-Text Citations (Chicago and Turabian Author/Date)

The in-text citation lists the author's last name, publication date, and page number. Like so: a behavioral antiracist is "one who is making racial group behavior fictional and individual behavior real" (Kendi 2019, 92).

Quick Citation Rules

Full Citation Guides

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