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Hispanic Studies

APA Style

The APA style is often used by students and scholars in the social sciences, especially in the fields of psychology and sociology.

Formatting In-Text Citations

APA features in-text citation, which typically includes the author's last name and date (Lipson 2018).

Common Exceptions 

  • When quoting directly with APA, include a specific page number 
    • "microaggressions are brief, everyday exchanges that send denigrating messages to people of color because they belong to a racial minority group" (Sue, et. al 2007, p. 273)
  • If you cite an author in a sentence, then you should exclude the author from the in-text citation.
    • Sue et. al describes various types of microaggressions, such as microasault (2007).

Quick Citation Rules

Full Style Guide

MLA Style Guide

The MLA style utilizes in text citations and MLA and has a standard template for developing bibliography references.

Formatting In-Text Citations

The general format for in-text references is to include the author's last name and the page number for the specific quote or reference. Place the parenthetical reference at the end of the sentence (Author 123).

Common Exceptions

  • If you mention the author's name in the sentence preceding a citation, leave the author's name out of the citation.
    • e.g. Martin Heidegger's explanation of anxiety...(34)
  • No author: Instead of author name, us a shortened version of the title in italics or in quotes for an article.

Quick Citation Rules

Full Citation Guide

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chicago style has two versions:

  • Notes & Bibliography, which has footnotes instead of in-text citations.
  • Author & Date, which uses in-text citations.

Turabian style is based off of Chicago style, but has simpler rules for structuring citations.

Formatting Notes (Chicago and Turabian Notes & Bibliography)

A note uses a footnote to indicate a citation. For example: a behavioral antiracist is "one who is making racial group behavior fictional and individual behavior real."1

1. Ibram X. Kendi, How to Be an Antiracist (One world, 2019), 92.

Formatting In-Text Citations (Chicago and Turabian Author/Date)

The in-text citation lists the author's last name, publication date, and page number. Like so: a behavioral antiracist is "one who is making racial group behavior fictional and individual behavior real" (Kendi 2019, 92).

Quick Citation Rules

Full Citation Guides

Citing AI

You do need to cite text you have obtained from an AI tool/large language model. This allows you to be clear and transparent with your readers about where the text came from. The text generated by these models is not able to be reproduced exactly by others (or yourself) using the same prompt, so it's important that you keep careful notes on what the model has generated for you.

Most citation styles recommend that you do not cite an AI tool/large language model as an author or co-author. This is because authors assume responsibility for the work they turn in for class, or put out into the world, and a tool cannot take on ethical responsibilities. When you use an AI tool/large language model in your work, you are taking on the ethical responsibility for using and citing it.

Below are some examples of how to cite AI in common citation styles:

APA Style

APA Style

The APA style blog gives the following example for citing ChatGPT:

OpenAI. (2023). ChatGPT (Mar 14 version) [Large language model].

You can use the same structure to cite any AI tool/large language model:

Publisher. (Year). Name of AI Product. (Version). [Additional context]. URL

Chicago Style

Chicago Style

The Chicago Manual of Style gives the following formatting examples for citing ChatGPT:

Notes & Bibliography Style footnote:
1. Text generated by ChatGPT, OpenAI, March 7, 2023,

Author Date Style in-text citation:
(ChatGPT, March 7, 2023).

Since the text of ChatGPT can't be accessed through a URL, the Chicago Manual of Style recommends not citing it in the bibliography and instead treating text generated by a Large Language Model like you would any other personal communication (see CMOS 14.214 and 15.53).

MLA Style

MLA Style

All works cited in MLA Style follow the same template. The MLA Style Center has examples of citing AI tools/large language models on their page, How Do I Cite Generative AI in MLA Style?, which gives the following example:

“The Sunflower” villanelle about a sunflower. ChatGPT, 13 Feb. version, OpenAI, 8 Mar. 2023,

Here's the template specifics when citing an AI tool/large language model:
Author: Do not use.
Title of the Source: Describe the generated text. You may also want to include information about the prompt.
Title of the Container: The name of the AI Tool/Large Language Model.
Version: Be specific, for instance ChatGPT 3.5
Publisher: The company that produced the AI Tool/Large Language Model.
Date: The date the text was generated>
Location: URL of the the AI Tool/Large Language Model.

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