Skip to Main Content

Communication Studies

APA Style

The APA style is often used by students and scholars in the social sciences, especially in the fields of psychology and sociology.

Formatting In-Text Citations

APA features in-text citation, which typically includes the author's last name and date (Lipson 2018).

Common Exceptions 

  • When quoting directly with APA, include a specific page number 
    • "microaggressions are brief, everyday exchanges that send denigrating messages to people of color because they belong to a racial minority group" (Sue, et. al 2007, p. 273)
  • If you cite an author in a sentence, then you should exclude the author from the in-text citation.
    • Sue et. al describes various types of microaggressions, such as microasault (2007).

Quick Citation Rules

Full Style Guide

MLA Style Guide

The MLA style utilizes in text citations and MLA and has a standard template for developing bibliography references.

Formatting In-Text Citations

The general format for in-text references is to include the author's last name and the page number for the specific quote or reference. Place the parenthetical reference at the end of the sentence (Author 123).

Common Exceptions

  • If you mention the author's name in the sentence preceding a citation, leave the author's name out of the citation.
    • e.g. Martin Heidegger's explanation of anxiety...(34)
  • No author: Instead of author name, us a shortened version of the title in italics or in quotes for an article.

Quick Citation Rules

Full Citation Guide

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chicago style has two versions:

  • Notes & Bibliography, which has footnotes instead of in-text citations
  • Author & Date, which uses in-text citations.

Turabian style is based off of Chicago style, but has simpler rules for structuring citations.

Formatting Notes (Chicago and Turabian Notes & Bibliography)

A note uses a footnote to indicate a citation. For example: a behavioral antiracist is "one who is making racial group behavior fictional and individual behavior real."1


1. Ibram X. Kendi, How to Be an Antiracist (One world, 2019), 92.

Formatting In-Text Citations (Chicago and Turabian Author/Date)

The in-text citation lists the author's last name, publication date, and page number. Like so: a behavioral antiracist is "one who is making racial group behavior fictional and individual behavior real" (Kendi 2019, 92).

Quick Citation Rules

Full Citation Guides

Citing AI

As advanced AI programs like ChatGPT emerge, scholars are concerned about adequate citations. Some style guides (like MLA) have published instructions for citing AI. However, many style guides haven't yet adopted formal guidelines. 

Note: When citing the creator's name, attempt to find the programmer of the AI software. Don't cite the user who inputted the prompt

Citing AI in APA:

  • The American Phycological Association hasn't released specific guidance on citing AI. However, it's most intuitive to cite a computer-based AI program as a website. Refer to the below formatting: 
    • Bibliography Format: Creator's Last Name, Creator's First Initial. (Year of Access, Day of Access). Name of Program. Publisher of Program. https://linktoprogram
    • Example: Altman, S. (2023, January 31). ChatGPT. OpenAI. https://openai.com/blog/chatgpt/ 

Citing AI in MLA:

  • Bibliography Format: Creator's Last Name, Creator's First Name. "Name of Program." Publisher of Program. https://linktoprogram
  • Example: Altman, Sam. "ChatGPT." OpenAI. https://openai.com/blog/chatgpt/ 

Citing AI in Chicago:

  • Chicago lacks formal guidelines regarding AI programs. However, it's most intuitive to cite these programs as websites. Refer to the below formatting: 
    • Footnote Format: Creator's Full Name, "Name of Program," Publisher of Program, Date of Access, https://linktoprogram
    • Bibliography Format: Creator's Last Name, Creator's First Name. "Name of Program." Publisher of Program. Date of access. https://linktoprogram 
    • Example [Bibliography Format]: Altman, Sam. "ChatGPT." OpenAI. Accessed January 31, 2023. https://openai.com/blog/chatgpt/ 
Questions? Need help? Ask Us
Davidson College Library, Box 7200, 209 Ridge Rd., Davidson, NC 28035-7200
Creative Commons license logo for CC by-sa 4.0
This Davidson College Library Research Guides are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
All box-title icons from Entypo pictograms by Daniel Bruce — www.entypo.com